What rights do landowners have when a pipeline company takes part of their property by eminent domain? As I mentioned on Monte Belmonte's show on the River, although federal law governs the taking itself, state law determines the meaning of "just compensation." What, then, is "just compensation" for an easement over part of your land?
Here in Massachusetts the courts start their analysis with the applicable statute, M.G.L.c.79, s.12, which provides that in the case of a partial taking the assessment shall include "damages to the part not taken." So the landowner needs to show the diminution in the fair market value of the whole parcel (both the taken part and the remaining part). In other words, what would a hypothetical willing buyer pay for the property as a whole after it had been on the market for a reasonable length of time. At this point readers may wonder how a judge would arrive at that hypothetical buyer's price. The following case provides some guidance.
When the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts considered this issue, it decided to take into account several factors, including (1) "stigma," i.e public fear of potential hazards (even exaggerated fears based on misinformation) and (2) the possible additional construction expenses and the "administrative hassle" of having to abide by the company's rules. The figure the judge ordered was far in excess of what the company deemed reasonable, so the company appealed. But the Court of Appeals for the First Circuit affirmed the judge's decision. Portland Natural Gas Transmission Sys. v. 19.2 Acres of Land in Haverhill, 195 F.Supp.2d 314 (D.Mass. 2002) aff'd 318 F.3d 279 (1st Cir. 2003).
What does this mean for landowners in Berkshire and Franklin Counties whose properties the underground pipeline might cross? When preparing for the eminent domain case, they should make sure their attorneys have garnered abundant evidence of how the taking will diminish the fair market value of their property, including photographs and testimony from expert and lay witnesses alike. In putting their evidence together they should bear in mind that the court should take into account the "stigma" and "hassle" factors.
If you have questions about what might constitute "stigma" and "hassle," please feel free to post a comment/call/email.